Monday, October 8, 2012

Practical Guidelines for Urban Areas Development in Seismic Prone Countries


Natural hazards especially earthquakes always make great damage and loss in urban and rural areas. During the past two decades, the impacts of such hazards in urban places have been continuously increased. This is mainly because of inappropriate growth and development of cities, uncontrollable increase of population density in vulnerable urban areas due to immigration of people from villages to the cities for finding better living opportunities, unsustainable development of urban forms and patterns as well as urban infrastructures,
inappropriate population distribution along high risk areas, and many other issues.
Considering the vulnerability of urban areas to earthquake and other natural hazards, the United Nations organized World Disaster Reduction Campaign in 2010 and 2011 entitled as "Making Cities Resilient". In this regard, several activities were carried out in different countries. RCUSS, Kobe University is also organized a workshop in November 2010 about earthquake risk in mega urban areas and as one of the results of that workshop, it was decided to prepare a guideline for earthquake risk mitigation in urban places. For this purpose, a group of researchers from Middle East and North African Countries were assigned to prepare different parts of the manual. These activities were formulated into three main sections considering geological and geotechnical issues, building and urban infra-structures subjects, and disaster management elements. In each part, after introducing the subjects and the relevant challenges, the global experiences about each topic were reviewed, and some guidelines were presented to be considered for safe development of urban areas in seismic prone zones. This manual can be used by urban planners, as well as disaster management authorities as a guideline for organizing the relevant activities and implementing risk reduction measures.
Authors:

ProjectManager: Kambod Amini Hosseini (Iran, IIEES)
Project Coordinator: Burcak Busbug Erkan (Turkey, METU)
Project Supervisor: Yasuo Tanaka (Japan, RCUSS)
Main Study Team: Yousef Mehani (Algeria), Emin Yahya Mentese (Turkey), Alpaslan Hamdi
Kuzucuoglu (Turkey), Lamia Ali (Syria).


1.3. Development of urban areas in Fault Zones
1.3.1. Introduction
1.3.2. Development in fault zones
1.3.3. The global activities for surface faulting risk assessment and risk reduction
1.3.4. Main guidelines and criteria for reducing the impacts of fault rupture
1.4. Development of urban areas in liquefiable areas
1.4.1. Introduction
1.4.2. Development in liquefaction hazard zones
1.4.3. The global activities for evaluation of liquefaction potential and risk reduction
1.4.4. Main guidelines and criteria for reducing the impacts of liquefaction
1.5. Development of urban fabrics in areas prone to land subsidence
1.5.1. Introduction
1.5.2. Development in land subsidence prone areas
1.5.3. The global activities for evaluation of land subsidence
1.5.4. Main guidelines and criteria for reducing the impacts of land subsidence
Chapter 2 Structural and urban planning considerations
2.1. Evaluating the vulnerability of existing buildings in urban fabrics
2.1.1. Introduction
2.1.2. Development of seismic codes for existing buildings
2.1.3. A review of the global experiences
2.1.4. Main guidelines for assessment the vulnerability of existing R/C buildings
2.2. The impacts of urban forms and patterns
2.2.1. Introduction
2.2.2. Forms and patterns in seismic regions
2.2.3. The global activities for assessing the impacts of form and patterns in vulnerability
2.2.4. Main guidelines for considering form and pattern in seismic zones
2.3. Improving old and vulnerable urban fabrics
2.3.1. Introduction
2.3.2. Identification of vulnerable urban fabrics to earthquakes
2.3.3. The global activities for assessing and improving vulnerable urban fabrics
2.3.4. Main guidelines for improving vulnerable urban fabrics in seismic zones
2.4. Road networks in earthquake prone zones
2.4.1. Introduction
2.4.2. General guidelines for safe planning of road networks
2.4.3. Physical criteria for developing road network
2.5. Improving of urban infrastructures in seismic prone areas
2.5.1. Introduction
2.5.2. Characteristics of resilient networks
2.5.3. A review of global experiences
2.5.4. Main guidelines for improving lifelines and infrastructure in urban fabrics
Chapter 3 Emergency management and urban developments
3.1. Developing disaster risk management master plans for urban areas
3.1.1. Introduction
3.1.2. Components of earthquake risk mitigation and management master plans
3.1.3. Main guidelines for preparing risk management master plans
3.2. Vulnerability and loss estimation in seismic prone urban areas
3.2.1. Introduction
3.2.2. Code and software of impact assessment
3.2.3. Main guidelines for assessment impacts of earthquakes
3.3. Developing Emergency response command centers (ERCC)
3.3.1. Introduction
3.3.2. Main infrastructures necessary for developing ERCC
3.3.3. A review of the global activities for making ERCC
3.3.4. Main guidelines and criteria for developing ERCC
3.4. Developing rescue and relief bases in urban areas in earthquake prone zones
3.4.1. Introduction
3.4.2. Improving rescue and relief activities
3.4.3. A review of the global activities
3.4.4. Main guidelines and criteria for developing rescue and relief bases
3.5. Developing emergency medical centers in urban areas in earthquake prone zones
3.5.1. Introduction
3.5.2. Improving medical care service in mass emergency conditions
3.5.3. A review of the global experiences
3.5.4. Mass casualty’s management guidelines
3.6. Evacuation places in urban areas in earthquake prone zones
3.6.1. Introduction
3.6.2. Planning for emergency evacuation
3.6.3. A review of the global experiences
3.6.4. General guidelines for developing evacuation plans


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